Nano Biomedicine

Embryotoxic Potential of the Nanomaterials and Biomaterials by Improvement of Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST)

Koichi IMAI

Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, Osaka, Japan

Nano Biomed 2015;7(1): 28-39, (Jun 30)

Embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate to all fetal and adult cell types and might represent a useful cell source for tissue regeneration. Moreover, the applicable of an embryonic stem cell can be used not only to the tissue regenerative field but also to in vitro embryotoxicity field. The influences of biomaterials on human reproduction and development are still unclear. Their influences on the next or future generations are also unknown. Although many biomaterials have already been used, many people have concerns over them. Regarding long-term embryotoxicity associated with biomaterial exposure, even the presence or absence of risks is unclear. Spielmann et al. suggested that embryotoxicity could be estimated based on influences on ES cell differentiation. In 1997. Spielmann et al. developed the embryonic stem cell test (EST), which is an in vitro embryotoxicity test method that can be used to estimate the risk of embryotoxicity of chemical substances relatively quickly compared to the conventional methods that involve animal experiments. The EST has been evaluated in a formal validation study funded by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods: ECVAM in which two other in vitro embryotoxicity tests (micromass test, whole embryo culture test) were validated against a set of test chemicals characterized by high levels of in vivo embryotoxicity data in laboratory animals and humans. In a validation study in Europe, the EST was found to be reproducible, demonstrating an overall accuracy of 80% and 100% correct prediction of strong embryotoxicity for chemicals studied under blind conditions. However, use of EST is impossible for the Biomaterials, which is not dissolved in a culture medium. Therefore, some improvement of EST protocol is proposed.

Key words: EST, ES cells, embryotoxicity

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