Nano Biomedicine

Biological Response to Nanostructure of Carbon Nanotube/titanium Composite Surfaces

Erika NISHIDA1, Hirofumi MIYAJI1, Junko UMEDA2, Katsuyoshi KONDOH2, Hiroko TAKITA3, Izumi KANAYAMA1, Saori TANAKA1, Akihito KATO1, Bunshi FUGETSU4, Tsukasa AKASAKA5, and Masamitsu KAWANAMI1
1Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Hokkaido University
Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
2Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Japan
3Support Section for Education and Research, Hokkaido University
Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
4Nano-Agri Lab, Policy Alternatives Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
5Department of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Hokkaido University
Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Sapporo, Japan

Nano Biomed 2015;7(1): 11-20, (Jun 30)

Titanium (Ti) is frequently used as a biomaterial in dental and orthopedic implants and in bone fixation devices. Effective modification of the Ti surface plays a crucial role in improving biocompatibility. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the most interesting nanomaterials due to their unique properties. In this study, we fabricated CNT-Ti composite surfaces by annealing Ti plates covered by different sized CNTs (Nanocyl NC 7000, 9.5 nm diameter and VGCF-H, 150 nm diameter). The properties of these surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and osteoblast-like cell seeding. In addition, samples were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The three-dimensional nanostructures of CNTs and creation of titanium carbide were evident on the Ti surfaces, suggesting that the CNTs were well-anchored onto the Ti plates. CNT modification promoted desirable cell behavior, including cell spreading and proliferation, especially on the Nanocyl-modified surface. Inflammatory response was rarely observed on the Nanocyl surface, but macrophage-like giant cells were frequently observed on the VGCF-H surface. Therefore, the nanomorphology of narrow diameter CNTs provides a CNT-Ti composite surface with good biocompatibility.

Key words: carbon nanotube, titanium, nanostructure, cell proliferation, biocompatibility

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