Nano Biomedicine

The Double-edged Effect of Silver Nanoparticles is Determined by Their Physical Characteristics

Alaa FEHAID1,2,3, and Akiyoshi TANIGUCHI1,2

1Cellular Functional Nanobiomaterials Group, Research Center for Functional Materials,
National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Japan
2Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
3Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Mansoura University, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt

Nano Biomed 2019; 11(2): 49-56, (Dec 30, Nano Biomedicine)

Nanotechnology is a rapidly advancing field with significant potential. Nanoparticles (NPs) are very small in diameter, ranging from 0.1 to 100 nm [1], and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have unique antimicrobial, optical, and biological properties, along with high electrical conductivity. AgNPs are widely used in many fields, including medicine, food, and industry [5]. Therefore, assessing the risks and safety of AgNPs is very important. In this review, we discuss the dou-ble-edged sword of AgNPs and clarify the different cellular responses as determined by their char-acteristics. Coating, size, and concentration are critical factors that affect cellular uptake and AgNP interactions. Different NP coatings affect the agglomeration and dissolution rate, which then affect cellular responses, revealing that uncoated AgNPs are more toxic than those that are coated. Also, smaller NPs have a higher surface area, ionization rate, and cytotoxic effects. The cellular uptake of AgNPs occurs in a concentration-dependent manner, which also affects cellular responses. Taken together, we conclude that specifying AgNP characteristics is vital to understanding the cellular responses that they might induce.

Key words:silver nanoparticles, cellular responses, size, coatings, concentration

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